THE VALKYRIE “HITLER PLOT” AT DEALEY PLAZA
On July 20, 1944 the German military plot to kill Hitler culminated in an explosion in a map room at the Wolf’s Lair field headquarters near Rastenburg, East Prussia.
The assassination and coup plan, code named “Valkyrie,” was actually years in the making and has had repercussion for decades into the future, including now.
When the explosion didn’t kill Hitler and the coup attempt failed, most of the participants were rounded up and executed, and retribution and reprisals against their families was swift and deadly.
Colonel Claus Count Schenk von Stauffenburg, who planted the bomb, left the building and flew to Berlin. He thought for sure Hitler was killed in the explosion, but that belief was rebuffed by Hitler himself, who went on the radio to assure everyone he was still alive.
Hitler kept a scheduled meeting with Italian fascist Benito Mussolini, who had been rescued from a mountain prison by commando leader Otto Skorzeny, who led the roundup of plotters.
Colonel von Stauffenburg, General Friedrich Obricht and a few key plotters were immediately executed. Field Marshall Romell, who was aware of the plot, was permitted to commit suicide in exchange for the survival of his family and have a formal state funeral. Ludwig Beck, formerly chief of the general staff also committed suicide.
Others escaped the manhunt, including two officers who were on the West German General Staff during the Cold War – Generals Hans Speidel and Adolf Heusinger, both of whom visited the Pentagon on November 22, 1963 and were meeting with the Joint Chiefs of Staff when the assassination occurred.
Among those who escaped was Hans Bernd Gisevius, a German (Abwehr) intelligence officer and principle liaison between the German resistance and OSS officer Allen Dulles in Switzerland. Dulles’ main assistant Mary Bancroft served as the OSS case officer with Gisevius. Gisevious hid out in the basement of a friend in Berlin until Dulles and Bancroft got him forged papers identifying him as “Dr. Hoffman,” and a train ticket to Switzerland.
Gisevious testified against the Nazis at Nurenburg, sending some to the gallows, and for his cooperation was brought to the United States by Dulles. Gisevious was given a generous allowance and for a while stayed at the home of Tom Braden, who was head of the CIA’s International Operations Division. Mary Bancroft translated Gisevious’ autobiography and his personal History of the Third Reich.
And like other former German Nazis who cooperated with the Americans, and brought to the United States under Operation Paperclip – he was given a job with a major defense contractor.
On July 20, 1954, the tenth anniversary of the Valkyrie plot, then CIA director Allen Dulles had a public diner with Hans B. Gisevious, who was working at the time in Dallas for Dulles’ good friend Neil Mallon.
The July 20, 1944 Valkyrie attempt to kill Hitler is mentioned numerous times throughout the JFK assassination narrative, and a document released under the JFK Act is currently under submission to the U.S. Supreme Court.
What are the Valkyrie plot associations with the assassination of President Kennedy?
1) VOLKMAR SCHMIDT AND LEE HARVEY OSWALD
When Lee Harvey Oswald returned to Texas from the Soviet Union, where he had defected after being discharged from the U.S. Marine Corps, he lived in Dallas with his Russian wife and daughter. There Oswald was befriended by George deMohrenschildt, a White Russian petroleum geologist.
When deMohrenschidt was preparing to leave for a job in Haiti, he arranged for his friend Volkmar Schmidt to have a February 22, 1963 house party where the Oswalds could meet Ruth and Michael Paine. DeMohrenschidt thought Oswald and Michael Paine had similar ideological philosophies and wanted them to meet.
Schmidt shared the house with two other Magnolia Oil company engineers, Norman Frederickson and Everett Glover.
While Michael Paine didn’t attend the party, Ruth Paine and Marina Oswald became fast friends, and remained so until the assassination. While Ruth and Marina talked in Russian in a bedroom, Schmidt held a lengthy discussion with Oswald.
Schmidt was a German oil geologist who was working in Canada when I talked with him at length over the phone. Schmidt was one of the hosts of the Dallas house party set up for Lee Harvey Oswald and his wife to meet Michael Paine and his wife Ruth.
According to Schmidt Oswald talked for hours with him; Schmidt recalled to me that he used a “reverse psychology” technique on Oswald taught to him by a German psychologist. Schmidt reported that he talked to Oswald about General Walker, and suggested that Walker was a fascist who should be assassinated before he got too powerful, much like Hitler should have been killed, specifically mentioning the July 20, 1944 failed attempt to kill Hitler. Schmidt said he felt guilty for planting the seed in Oswald to shoot Walker, and he felt bad every time he drove through Dealey Plaza.
For the complete conversation see:
2) PROFESSOR WHILHELM KEUTEMEYER – Von Halen and Von Trott
In his telephone conversation with me Schmidt said that Professor Whilhelm Keutemeyer was not directly involved in the Valkyrie plot but many of his friends were in the circle of those who tried to kill Hitler. “Stauffenberg, and several of his close friends were executed, and one of the sons of his friends, became a very close friend of mine. Fritz from Holland - Frederick Von Halen. He was actually arrested before the plot came out. He knew about the plot and was tortured to death. And another gentleman who was involved was Von Trott, a friend of Kuetemeyer.”
“Dr. Kuetemeyer was a psychosomatic medicine specialist, but he also followed Jung and he treated patients as a psychiatrist and he was also a professor of religion at Heidelberg University. He lectured on literature and such….I grew up in his house basically. My father had passed away and so half the time I stayed there….I got a job with Magnolia in Germany because I worked for the German subsidiary as a co-op student in Germany, so they hired me after I graduated. They interviewed me in Paris and hired me on the strength of my thesis.”
According to Schmidt, “Oswald found out that if you really want to do something you can succeed in a lot of things, it just takes determination. That’s how he learned Russian, hea? It took incredible determination. And he pulled himself out of really low class upbringing in Fort Worth, which was hell, so he was a bitter young man because of social injustice, which quite frankly existed in Texas especially. So he was a nothing, who tried to make something out of himself…”
“Professor Kuetemeyer told me you know, to deal with people like this who are disturbed, you have to use empathy, be slightly over zealous yourself to link up with them and that total insanity, towards reality. When I heard how hateful he was towards Kennedy and Cuba, which was kind of irrational, I tried to say "hey, there’s something much more real to be concerned about," because I don’t know about Castro, but I know about this Walker, he’s kind of a Nazi, yea? Not so bad as those Nazis in Germany, but I had specifically mentioned to Lee Harvey Oswald, that Walker had given a speech to the students at the Mississippi campus and those guys went off and killed a couple of journalists.”
I asked Schmidt if he thought his conversation with Oswald about Walker may have instigated him to take a pot shot at him?
Schmidt: “Yes, he did, and naturally it was a terrible responsibility, and for years when I drove past the underpass I literally had to cry because, you know. But I exonerate myself completely because I had the best intent, embarrass Kennedy, and I certainly didn’t tell him to take a pot shot at him. I may have triggered it. Actually, a few days after I talked with him, he bought his weapons.”
DeMohrenschildt belatedly revealed that Oswald had given him a copy of the backyard photo of him with the rifle and pistol and Communist publicatiions, which was enscribed by Marina with the notation: “Hunter of Fascists, Ha, Ha!”
“One thing is that the DeMohrenschildts were terribly afraid of all kinds of things, people disappearing and what not, and were afraid to talk about it. They also said that Oswald didn’t do it, but I think it could have been that they had the key in their hand. When they saw this nut giving them a picture with, "the Nazi killer." It was totally irresponsible for George deMohrenschildt not to make a noise about it. He told me about it.”
And he knew that Oswald had the rifle and may have taken the shot at Walker because the last time deMohrenschildt visited Oswald, saw the rifle in the closet, which sparked deMohrenschildt to refer to the Walker shooting by saying: “How did you miss?”
3) GEORGE DEMOHRENSCHILDT AND THE WALKER SHOOTING
The Walker Shooting has been a significant but unexplored aspect of the Kennedy assassination.
Former New York Times reporter Phil Shenon wrote a book – A Cruel and Shocking Act – about a house party in Mexico City where Oswald was supposed to have been encouraged to kill JFK by Cuban embassy employees. But the historic Oswald wasn’t there at the time. Furtermore, the rujmor that Castro was behind the Dealey Plaza Operation was a pre-planned disinformation campaign that failed; yet the vestigial notion remains a CIA “active measure” with the likes of Shenon and Gus Russo writing books and former CIA agents Brien Latell and Bob Baer writing books and making multi-part TV series on it, even though it isn’t true.
And here we have a house party where Oswald reportedly was encouraged to kill General Walker, and Oswald is accused of attempting to shoot Walker and of killing the President, yet nobody seems interested.
Former CIA official Rolf Mowatt-Larssen is not your typical former CIA officer.
Larssen, in his November 2019 CAPA presentation in Dallas and in the recently released Japanese documentary film, breaks from the traditional CIA response to conspiracy allegations by blaming Castro.
Instead Larssen postulates Oswald was recruited as a covert intelligence operative by a rogue element in the CIA. Larssen says that the Walker shooting was the type of thing that the CIA would look for to blackmail a person to do their bidding, and he thinks that was possible with Oswald after the Walker shooting, IF the CIA were aware of Oswald’s role. And the postulation that the CIA had knoweldge of deMohrenschildt’s allegation regarding Walker may not be a matter of pure speculation after all.
Well after leaving Dallas, and on his way to Haiti to work for a year for Papa Doc, and plot against him, George deMohrenschildt met with some CIA agents in New York City in the offices of John Train, an official responsible for running CIA proprietary companies, like airlines (Air America) and publications (The Paris Review).
Among those deMohrenschildt met in New York City were CIA officer Thomas Devine (WUBRINY/1), a former partner in Zapata Oil with George H. W. Bush (and Neil Mallon?), a partner in the investment firm of Train, Cabot and Associates.
Did deMohrenschildt tell them the most potentionally significant piece of intelligence he possessed – that Oswald had a rifle and took the shot at Walker?
After meeting with the CIA in New York City deMohrenschildt went to Washington D.C. where he met with Dorothie Matlack and Colonel Sam Kail of military intelligence, specifically ACSI – Assisatnat Chief of Staff for Intelligence. Kail was the Army liaison officer at the American embassy in Cuba when Batista fled and Castro assumed power. Kail worked closely with David Atlee Phillips and “Maurice Bishop” told Anthony Veciana to contact Kail. John Newman says that the recently released records indicate Veciana was operated, not by the CIA but by Army Intelligence. And Colonel Frank “Brandy” Brandstetter, the manager of the then brand new Havana Hilton, was a US Army Reserve officer officially in Col. Jack Crichton’s 488th USAR Intelligence out of Dallas, but reported directly to ACSI in DC, specifically to Dorothie Matlack. After Batista fled on New Year’s Eve 1959, Dr. Rolando Cubella of the DRE took over Batista’s office but Castro, when he got to Havana, accepted Col. Brandy’s offer to stay in the Penthouse of the Havana Hilton.
Did deMohrenschilt tell the CIA or ACSI officers he met that Oswald had a rifle and took a shot at Walker?
When Marina testified before the Warren Commission she was asked about the Walker shooting. She said Oswald admitted as much, and said that he did it because Hitler should have been killed too, specifically mentioning Hitler. She also wrote “Hunter of Fascists!, Ha, Ha,” on the backyard photo given to deMohrenschildt.
And Colonel Dr. Jose Rivera (USA Reserves), who was stationed at Fort Detrick, Maryland, knew Oswald was involved in the Walker shooting and knew Oswald’s address in New Orleans before Oswald himself knew where he was going to live. (See: Adele Edisen for details).
Shortly after the Walker shooting Oswald took a bus to his hometown of New Orleans, while Marina stayed with Ruth Paine. Finding a job and an apartment, Oswald called Ruth Paine and she drove Marina and the baby and their belongings to New Orleans, where the Oswald stayed for an eventful summer. Oswald tried to infiltrate Carlos Bringuier’s DRE group there, giving Bringuier his US Marine Corps training manual. Then he got into a fight with Bringuiner and two other Cuban exiles while giving out Fair Play for Cuba Committee (FPCC) leaflets in front of the International Trade Mart. After a court hearing Oswald engaged in a radio debate with Bringuier and a CIA trained psychological warfare expert.
4) ARTHUR YOUNG and RUTH FORBES PAINE YOUNG
Sometime during that summer Ruth Paine wrote a letter to the pregnant Marina asking her if she would like to move in with her in Texas until she had the baby. If Marina agreed, she was directed to write a letter to Ruth Paine in care of C/O Arthur Young, Paoli, Pa.
When I first read about that letter in Gerald Ford’s Portrait of the Patsy, err Assassin, I wondered who Arthur Young was, and found him to be one of the most interesting persons I have encountered. The eccentric Princeton-educated inventor of the Bell Helicopter (49A – MASH helicopter), Young was responsible for getting Michael Paine the job at Bell in Texas, where Paine and his wife Ruth Hyde Paine relocated, and invited Marina into their home.
Young’s wife was Michael’s mother – Ruth Forbes Paine Young. Michael’s father Lyman Paine was a rich cocktail party communist and a founder of the Trotskyite Party in the USA. Oswald subscribed to the Ttotskyite Party paper, – The Militant, a copy of which he is holding in the backyard photos, along with the rifle and pistol.
Michael Paine was living with his mother and Arthur Young at their historic farm in the outskirts of Philadelphia when he met Ruth Hyde at a folk dance. They were married at the Friends Meeting at Media, Pa., where radical leftist militants broke into the Media FBI office and stole their files, including the revealing COINTEPRO documents that detail the FBI’s infiltration of anti-Vietnam war groups. They could never find out who broke into their office until the statute of limitations ran out and some of those responsible came clean.
Ruth Hyde Paine took her children on a summer vacation road trip in 1963, visiting her father in Ohio, her sister, who worked for the CIA in Virginia, and Michael’s mother, first at the Forbes private Naushon Island off Woods Hole, Massachusetts, also often visited by Mary Bancroft and yachtsman Walter Cronkite. Both Ruth Forbes Paine Young and Cronkite, as well as Priscilla Johnson McMillan, were active members of the World Federalists, founded by Cord Meyer, Jr. to support the United Nations.
After visiting Naushon Island with Ruth F. P. Young, Ruth Paine drove to the Young’s Paoil, Pennsylvania farm, where she must have received a letter from Marina agreeing to move in with her. So it is not unreasonable to assume that Michael’s mother and Arthur Young may have known as well.
Arthur Young was a major player in this drama, primarily in obtaining the Bell Helicopter job in Texas for Michael, where they relocaterd from Philadelphia. But Young is not as significant as Michael’s mom – Ruth Forbes Paine Young, as she was also a best friend and traveling companion of Mary Bancroft.
According to Bancroft’s book Autobiography of a Spy, Ruth Forbes accompanied her aboard a steamship to Europe, on which Bancroft met her future husband, a Swiss businessman. Marrying him and relocating to Switzerland – where she was living at the beginning of World War II and where she met OSS officer Allen Dulles, becoming his primary assistant and paramour. She was also the case officer for Hans Bernd Gisevious.
5) MARY BANCROFT - ALLEN DULLES AND HANS BERND GISEVIOUS
As the story goes, Bancroft was in bed with Dulles one evening when there was knock on the door. Because it was well known that Dulles was an American OSS officer, he was often sought out by those who wanted to give him information or obtain it. Dulles later regretted not answering the door when he learned the visitor was Trotsky himself, an exile from the USSR who was on his way to Mexico City. That’s where he was assassinated by Ramon Mercader, a KGB trained killer. Issac Don Levine, who wrote the story of Mercader and the murder of Trotsky, also arragned for Priscilla Johnson to write Marina’s biography.
More significant to this story however is Dulles’ association with Abwer officer Hans Bernd Gisevious, who was deeply involved in the German military plots to kill Hitler. After planting the bomb that failed to kill Hitler, Col. Von Staffenberg flew to Berlin where Gisevious was writing press releases in support of the coup, but had to go into hiding when the plot failed.
Hiding out in the basement of a friend’s house in Berlin, Gisevious was delivered a package from Dulles and Bancroft that contained forged identity papers for a “Dr. Hoffman,” and a train ticket to Switzerland.
After the war Bancroft translated Gisevious’ autobiography and his personal history of the Third Reich. Dulles arranged for the CIA to give Gisevious and monthly allowance and for him to stay at the home of CIA officerTom Braden and eight kids. Then Gisevious moved to Dallas where he worked at the World Affairs Council for Dulles’ good friend Neil Mallon.
On July 20, 1954 Dulles and Gisevious celebrated the anniversary of the Valkyrie plot over a public dinner in Washington, D.C. , probably at the Alibi Club, where Dulles was known to frequently dine.
day the following article appeared in the Washington Star under the headline –
“Key Man in Plot to Kill Hitler Dines Here With Allen Dulles.”
“Two men whose countries were at war against each other ten years ago met here last night to relive in memory the roles they played in the attempt to kill Hitler on July 20, 1944. They were Allen Dulles, chief of the Central Intelligence Agency, and Dr. Hans Bernd Gisevius, one of the few German conspirators who escaped death when the plot failed. He escaped because of Mr. Dulles' aid.”
“Mr. Dulles invited Dr. Gisevus to dinner for ‘a sort of anniversary party’ recalling one of the most amazing intrigues of World War II.”
“The story began when Mr. Dulles went to Switzerland in late 1942 to organize an American espionage center. In Berne he met Dr. Gisevius, who then was German Vice Counsul and actually a member of the Nazi intelligence organization, the Abwehr. Dr. Gisevius was anti-Nazi and convinced as were many of his countrymen, that Hitler was leading the nation to destruction. He put Mr. Dulles in touch with the anti-Nazi underground and the two men secretly worked together to encourage the plots that finally was climaxed by the attempt on Hiter's life.”
“Through Mr. Gisevius, Mr. Dulles was able to keep his government advised of the German underground which reached high into the German military. Hitler survived the bomb that exploded in his secret headquarters in East Prussia and ordered a bloody purge of the conspirators. Dr. Gisevius, then in Germany, hid from Hitler's agents until Mr. Dulles managed to smuggle forged identification papers to him. Then, as "Dr. Hoffman," Dr. Gisevius eluded the Gestapo and made his way to Switzerland and safety. Dr. Gisevius now lives in Dallas, Texas.”
SEPTEMBER – 1963 – BUSY TIME ON THE DEVIL’S CHESSBOARD
Overall, it was a busy week in late September, 1963, in the immediate buildup to the assassination.
On September 16, someone signed Lee Harvey Oswald’s name on a restaurant registry in Hubertus, Wisconsin, shortly before the President would visit that state on his “Conservation Tour.” Shortly after the assassination a women who identified herself as “Mary” delivered a box of papers that she said Oswald left at her rooming house. Two detectives who went through the box before turning it over to D.A. Henry Wade, mentioned newspaper clippings and papers that referred to a planned assassination of President Kennedy in Wisconsin during the dedication of a lake and damn.
The following day CIA operative William George Gaudet obtained a visa to Mexico one person in line ahead of Oswald. In New York American diplomat William Attwood is informed that Castro wants to reach out and obtain some sort of normalization of relations with the United States, beginning a round of secret meetings between Cuban diplomat Carlos Lechuga and Atwood at cocktail parties at the apartment of ABC TV News reporter Lisa Howard. Lechuga, when previously assigned to Mexico City, had a relationship with Mexican national and Cuban embassy employee Sylvia Duran, while Attwood was the Choate Academy roommate of JFK who introduced him to Mary Pinchot (Meyer).
On September 19th JFK would approve Attwood’s back channel negotiations with Castro as long as they were not made public and it was acknowledged that Castro initiated the proceedings.
On September 20, Richard Case Nagell fired two shots into the roof of the State National Bank of El Paso, getting himself arrested and placed in federal custody. He is in possession of a Mexican tourist card for “Hidel” (aka Oswald).
Ruth Paine arrives in New Orleans after a summer long vacantion in her station wagon, visiting her father in Ohio, sister in Virginia and Michael’s mom Ruth Forbes Paine Young and Art Young at their Paoli, Pa. farm. She stayed the night in New Orleans and leaves the next day with Marina, her daughter and belongings, including the rifle. Early the next morning Oswald left his Magazine Street Apartment in New Orleans, skipping out on a month’s rent, and was last seen by a neighbor walking down the street with two suitcases.
On September 21, JFK and Jackie spend the afternoon aboard the Presidential yacht, Honey Fitz.
Around the same time David Atlee Phillips is promoted to grade 15 and made Chief of Cuban Operations, Mexico City.
The President’s White House Diary and Desk Calendar at the virtual Oval Office on September 23 reads:
“President Kennedy signs National Security Action Memorandum 261 that assigns the highest national priority to Project FOUR LEAVES to develop and produce a military communications system,” as part of the Defense Production Act (Pub. L. 81-774)
I can find no other mention of Project FOUR LEAVES anywhere, and it is believed to be still classified.
On September 24, The Senate passes JFK’s Limited Test Ban treaty, departs on his “Conservation Tour,” with the first stop being the home of Mary Pinchot (Meyer), whose conservative Republican mother (and widow of a former governor) is given a special award from the President for donating some of her property to the federal government as parks. Mary accompanies the President for this first leg of the journey.
The President then left for Ashland, Wisconsin, and Wyoming, where it is first publically announced that JFK will visit Texas on November 21 and 22.
6) DES FITZ BRIEFS THE JOINT CHIEFS OF THE CIA’S HITLER PLOT STUDY
On September 25, 1963 CIA official Desmond FitzGerald briefed the Joint Chiefs of Staff on CIA covert operations against Cuba that could require military assistance; General Krulak, who was responsible for such assistance, sent his adjunct Col. Walter Higgins to the meeting. Higgin’s notes include the referance to the CIA’s “detailed study” of the July 20, 1944 Valkyrie plot that was being adapted for use against Fidel Castro.
Before going into an analysis of that document, and the Supreme Court’s interest in it, there is yet another connection to the Vakyrie plot that needs to be mentioned.
D. H. BYRD
When Oswald returned to Dallas from Mexico, Ruth Paine helped arrange for Oswald to obtain a job at the Texas School Book Depository (TSBD).
The CIA, when it required cooperation from the media and academics, did not go to journalists or professors, but went right to the top – obtaining first the cooperation of the producers and university president. If they were to utilize the TSBD in an operation that required total control over the area, would they would go right to the top, to the building’s owner, in this case David Harold D.H.. “Dry Hole” Byrd?
Byrd was a major Texas oil man and early aviation pioneer, who was co-founder of the Civil Air Patrol (CAP) in 1941 with Cord Meyer, Sr., the father of Cord Meyer, Jr. Oswald was a cadet and member of the CAP in New Orleans before he enlisted in the Marines.
Byrd was a cousin of Virginia Senator Harry Byrd and supported the explorations of another cousin Navy Admiral Richard E. Byrd, whose radio reports from the polar regions could only be received by a young Arthur Collins, whose home-built radio in Cedar Rapids, Iowa. Collins’ radio was the only receiver that could pick up Admiral Bryd’s radio reports. Collins then established Collins Radio and he received many military contracts during World War II. In November 1963, Collins radios were included in all SAC bombers and the Executive Air Fleet, thanks to Art Collins good friend and fellow HAM radio enthusist Curtis LeMay, Air Force Chief of Staff.
In 1961 Byrd became associated with James Ling and Chance Voght to form Ling-Tempco-Voight (LTV), a major defense contractor.
7) BYRD AND VON ALVENSLEBEN
At the time of the assassination D. H. Byrd was on a safari in Africa with Baron Werner Von Alvensleben, a German whose father was described in an OSS report as being an “assassination expert.” Von Alvensleben also wrote a post-Valkyrie pamphlet in support of those who plotted against Hitler.
When he returned home after the assassination he brought Von Alvensleben with him as his guest. Byrd then had one of the windows removed from the Sixth Floor of the TSBD and placed it in his trophy room with the heads of dead animals.
8) Then there's the German General Staff visit to the Pentagon on November 22, 1963. They were in a meeting with the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs Genera Maxwell Taylor when they were notified the President was shot. Two of the generals were part of the Valkyrie plot but escaped retribution. They were mystified at the American's response to the assassination. The meeting continued as if nothing had happened, and when it was over, General Tayor took a nap.
BYRD AND DOOTLITTLE
Another popular safari hunting partner of D. H. Byrd was General James Doolittle, famous for his WWII 1942 carrier based bombing of Tokyo. Doolittle is less famous for being the principle author of the Doolittle report, which recommended that the CIA be given more covert action authority.
Byrd, Doolittle and dead lion.
And now D. H. Byrd, Von Alvensleben and Doolittle are the subjects of an FOIA request submitted by D.C. attorney Dan Alcorn, the lead lawyer in the AARC vs. CIA “Hitler Plot” suit that is now a topic of Supreme Court deliberations.
So there you have it – Eight ways that the Valkyrie “Hitler Plot” is mentioned in the JFK assassination narrative.
BK NOTES: Many thanks to California attorney Patrick McCarthy for taking the time to read and edit this article.
BK NOTES: Many thanks to California attorney Patrick McCarthy for taking the time to read and edit this article.
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